Click on
for a guide appropriate to occasions.

Place mouse pointer over
to get hints.

Place mousepointer over terms marked with to get their meaning.

If you have questions relating to your computation, e.g. because it did not yield the desired result, you may and send the link for loading it via together with your question and your contact address. You will receive an answer within some hours.

Using the input area at the bottom of the
start page
you search IN DUBIO PRO GEO by the Google^{TM} search engine.

Last change: Sept. 2017 (4 MB, 97 pages)

If you run IN DUBIO PRO GEO in different tabs of the same browser window then you work on the **same project**
in all those tabs! This may be undesired.

If webpages contain computation results then IN DUBIO PRO GEO has computed these results immediately before the page is displayed.
If you navigate in the browser by ''history'' or ''back'' to a page with computation results and if you have changed some data in between,
e.g. some settings, then the computations are **repeated with the changed data**
. You may not see exactly the same page as before! This may be undesired. It is safer not to use ''history'' or ''back'', but

The characters *& $ < > \ { | }*
are not allowed in input areas and will be replaced by *†*.

Blue-grounded may be left void.

Numerical values in input areas may be numbers with decimal point or decimal comma or
integers. Also the exponential notation is possible. Examples:

*16.1063 16,1063 161063e-4 -1705 -1705.0 -1,705e3*

Numerical values may also be arithmetic expressions with operators *+-*/*
without white spaces. Brackets and exponent are not supported here. Examples:

*8.1+8.0063 161063/1000 2,3009*7,0 3,3009*7,0-7 2*pi*

E.g. the following specifications of numeric values are therefore
invalid:

*8.1+80063e-4 16.1063m 16.10.63 (3,3009-1)*7,0 15°66'22.7" *

*16° 06' 22.7" 8.1'+8.0063' 161063°/1000 N16°6'22.7" 16°6'22.7"N *

In these examples the chosen output decimal separator
is not in effect.

**Known problem:**
Arithmetic expressions in input areas are not workable in the
angle unit *DegMinSec*.

and as well as other tabular data records like matrices and vectors may be copied to the textarea via clipboard. For most of the textareas there is a button for file upload. Here textfiles with a maximum size of 30 kByte are supported. The used character set is automatically recognized, of course also a multibyte character set.

Each data record is written in a separate row. The order of rows is sometimes arbitrary. Every input starting from ''//'' on a row as well as blank rows are ignored. Consecutive elements of each record are separated by tabulator, space or semicolon. Multiple spaces are treated as one space. However, e.g. '' 1; ;2 '' is treated as three elements, the second is empty. For numerical values or arithmetic expressions the rules given for Input areas apply.

**Example:** The following inputs yield identical results.

16,10 17,11 23,06 14,02 |
16,10 17.11 23.06 14,02 |
16.10;17.11 //extra 23.06 ; 14.02 |
16.10 ; 17+11/100 //extra 23.06 14.02 |

If you want to import coordinate or measurement lists from various data formats, a text editor is useful that can mark also columns of data. We recommend the freeware editor notepad++ . Also very powerful is textpad

It is assumed that all lengths as well as cartesian and grid coordinates in the project are given in the same unit and all areas are in the square of this unit. Also standard deviations of these quantities must be specified in this unit and are obtained in this unit. The unit metre is common. If a reference ellipsoid is used in a computation or the curvature of the Earth is to be corrected by the , then the length unit must be definitely metre.

It is not allowed to append a length unit to an input number.

The angle unit can be chosen separately for latititude/longitude and other angles. For some computations not all units of angle are selectable. Western longitudes and southern latitudes must be given negative.

Degrees | 16.1063 or 2.30009*7or 16.1063° |
---|---|

Gradians | 17.895889 or 17+0.895889 |

Arcminutes | 966.378 or 966.378' |

Arcseconds | 57982.7 or 57982.7" |

DegMin | 16.06378 or 16°06.378'or 16°6.378' |

DegMinSec | 16.06227 or 16°06'22.7"or 16°6'22.7" |

invalid | 16° 06' 22.7"or 2.30009°*7or N16°6'22.7"or 15°66'22.7" etc. |

Radians | 0.28110797 |

Turns | 0.00447397 |

: In this table the chosen

output decimal separator is not in effect.

For angles it is acceptionally possible to specify values with
*°,',"*
, but not in arithmetic expressions. Valid notations are displayed in the right table.

**Example**: For the angle *16.1063°*
the notations given at the right are possible on input, instead of decimal point also with decimal comma.
The output of angles in result tables is always by the first notation. E.g.
*16°6'22.7"* is given as *16.06227*.

If by
the output decimal separator is set to comma, then one gets
*16,06227*.

**Known problem:**
If angles are involved in a computation, then all quantities, which appear in alternative angle notation,
are converted to the standard notation, even though they are not angles. Be sure to give only angles in this angle notation here.

IN DUBIO PRO GEO works without java or flash etc. and as much as possible also without javascript. Only the following features require that javascript is enabled in your browser:

- directly loading examples and clearing in forms
- hiding paragraphs directly on the page (via works nonetheless)
- Transfering data to a new tab
- graphical output of the computation figures on a canvas
- special features only for students of geomatics at connected to the HTW network.

The computation figures are only displayed if the browser supports HTML5. Some styles require CSS3. Modern browsers supports HTML5 and CSS3! The Internet Explorer Version 8 and older are not recommended.

If Javascript is disabled, the buttons not workable appear
.

Test:

The HTML5 and CSS3 codes of IN DUBIO PRO GEO are regularly validated with the validation services .

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